In 2001 Jan;37(2):189-97 (PubMed Abstract) Have you ever dieted? My neck                                                                  1          2          3          4          5, 15. Have you ever dieted to lose weight? In a study with 102 undergraduate volunteers (72 women, 30 men) ranging between 18 and 43, they found an average overall score of 70 points (on a scale from 20 to 100). Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance: Elsevier 2012:334-342. Two scales were employed in this study to measure body image state. My hands                                                                1          2          3          4          5, 13. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS The Body Image States Scale (BISS) is a six-item measure of individuals’ evaluation and affect about their physical appearance at a particular moment in time. Between 28% and 70% of patients indicated some level of body image dissatisfaction to each question. My Body image refers to a persons' sense of their own physical appearance. Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals’ acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. We found the modified Body Image Scale valid, quick, and simple to use and we anticipate that it may make a suitable component of future IBD clinical and research assessments. What is Body Image? The Physical Appearance State In the present investigation with 174 college students, the six-item Body Image States Scale (BISS) was developed and found to be acceptably internally consistent and moderately stable. One such study is ongoing in our institution. Three hundred eighty-seven patients attending ambulatory clinics in 1 of 2 medical centers, between July 2011 and November 2012, were invited to participate in the study. on a negative (−3) to positive (+3) continuum. BAS items are rated along a 5-point scale (i.e., 1 = never, 2=seldom,3=sometimes,4=often,5=always) and are averaged to obtain an overall body appreciation score. The body condition score (BCS) system offers an objective method of estimating a horse's body fat levels. It may also be influenced by physical disease that results in changes in appearance or physical function.6 Body image dissatisfacton has been found in patients with rheumatological, dermatological, and renal diseases,7,–9 and in patients undergoing surgery.10 However, only a single study has assessed body image in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).11 This Australian postal questionnaire included a single specific question regarding body image impairment and provided interesting initial insights into patient concerns. Hopwood P, Fletcher I, Lee A, Al Ghazal S. A body image scale for use with cancer patients. Correlation between the modified body image scale and the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ) in 338 patients with IBD. Third, as advocated by survey design experts,18,19 it is needed to be simple and quick to complete and have a standardized format with unambiguous questions throughout, so that it could be self-administered by patients with a range of educational abilities. My chin                                                                   1          2          3          4          5, 16. A need was identified to develop a short body image scale (BIS) for use in clinical trials. Our aim was to assess and validate a body image scale specifically for use with patients with IBD. My ears                                                                   0          1          2          3          4, 10. The previous chapter briefly introduced a few perspectives on testing, with anemphasis on validity as a measure of the effectiveness of test scores.Validity is an overarching issue that encompasses all stages in the testdevelopment and administration processes, from blueprint to bubble sheet,including the stage wherein we choose the empirical operations that willassign numbers or labels to t… extent to which I look overweight                    1          2          3          4          5, 2. Regression analysis indicated that body image was not associated with disease type and the scale is applicable to patients with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. measure of body image that has two comparable versions which can be used with both females and males. My forehead                                                            0          1          2          3          4, 14. My legs                                                                   0          1          2          3          4, 7. affected body image. . Test–retest reliability was demonstrated between body image scores performed a median of 11 months apart (range, 2 wk–18 mo) (rs, 0.82; P < 0.001 Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). thighs                                                                1          2          3          4          5, 3. Ethical approval was obtained from local Ethics Committees. buttocks                                                            0          1          2          3          4, 4. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. To determine a subject’s score for a particular subscale of the Body Esteem Scale, simply add up the individual scores for items on the subscale. My waist                                                                 0          1          2          3          4, 8. Body Mass Index (BMI; kg weight/m2height) averaged 25.0 (SD= 4.1) for men and 24.7 (SD= 6.3) for women. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for patients with symptomatic urachal remnants: an experience with 57 patients. El Ansari W, Clausen SV, Mabhala A, et al. The study therefore included 338 patients whose demographic and clinical details are shown in Table 1. Body image perceptions among university students from England and Denmark, Measuring “negative body image”: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in a nonclinical population, The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies, Body talk among college men: content, correlates, and effects, Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice, Body image of women with rheumatoid arthritis, Body image disturbance in patients with Acne Vulgaris, Depression, anxiety, body image, sexual functioning, and dyadic adjustment associated with dialysis type in chronic renal failure, Patient-reported body image and cosmesis outcomes following kidney surgery: comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site, laparoscopic, and open surgery, Female gender and surgery impair relationships, body image, and sexuality in inflammatory bowel disease: patient perceptions. My Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. Overall, 8 of the 9 questions achieved the recommended 30% response rate with question 7 achieving a 28% positive response rate. However, it should be noted that the questionnaire is not valid in normal individuals because 4 of the 9 questions relate specifically to disease and treatment. Bowe WP, Doyle AK, Crerand CE, et al. Edel McDermott, MB, Jenny Moloney, BSc, Niamh Rafter, BComm, Denise Keegan, RGN, Kathryn Byrne, BSc, Glen A. Doherty, PhD, Garret Cullen, MD, Kevin Malone, MD, Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, The Body Image Scale: A Simple and Valid Tool for Assessing Body Image Dissatisfaction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 20, Issue 2, 1 February 2014, Pages 286–290, The ideal body image is represented as a predominantly thin, able-bodied young Anglo woman. It has been tested and validated on a broad range of cancer patients, and coverage has proved acceptable to both male and female patients with a range of body image concerns.14,15 The scale is not specific to any 1 disease and focuses on the effects of both disease and treatment on body image. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) carries a distinct psychosocial and a physical burden, but body image has not been formally assessed in patients with IBD, nor is there a validated body image questionnaire. A higher score suggest better body image and a low score indicates a negative body image. Patients scored from 0 (“Not at all”) to 3 (“Very much”) on each question so the lowest possible total score was 0 and the highest 27, with higher scores indicating increasing body image dissatisfaction. We found a close correlation between our modified 9-item scale and the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, thus establishing convergent validity. The Body Image Scale largely fulfills the above criteria. These items were deemed to be measuring a different construct, and were excluded from the modified scale. extent to which I look overweight                    0          1          2          3          4, 2. The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. Body image dissatisfaction is commonly found in the general population.1 As an example, 62% of female and 38% of male European university students consider themselves “too fat.”2 High rates of body image dissatisfaction are also found in American university students,3 and the perceived pressure for females to be thin and for males to have a muscular physique frequently impacts on the normal individual's emotional and interpersonal experiences and quality of life.4,5. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with body image dissatisfaction. Eur J Cancer. . A better understanding of the appreciation for one’s body, the higher the prediction of behaviors that can become problematic in various populations. Internal consistency of the body image scale was demonstrated with a Cronbach alpha of 0.93. My My ears                                                                   1          2          3          4          5, 10. Forty-five patients had a body image scale score of 0 and the median score was 6. Between 30% and 72% of patients answered “Not at all” to each of the 9 questions. Yes No Score 0 1 13. The Body Image States Scale105. Figure 5 shows the association between body image, gender, and previous surgery. Cash TF, Phillips KA, Santos MT, et al. A number of scales have been developed to assess body image dissatisfaction in physical diseases,12,13 but none has been tested or validated in an IBD population. Three hundred thirty-eight ambulatory patients (median age, 36; 174 male) completed a questionnaire that included the Hopwood body image scale adapted from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group. Version. Oyekcin DG, Gulpek D, Sahin EM, et al. Body image refers to a person's sense of their own physical appearance and to their perception of how others see them. general I feel anxious, tense, or nervous about: 1. Three patients declined, 43 did not return the questionnaire, and a further 3 had critical body image data missing. The The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. As an example, 30% of patients answered “Not at all” to question 1, whereas 43%, 17%, and 10% answered “A little,” “Quite a lot,” and “Very much,” respectively. Whistance RN, Gilbert R, Fayers P, et al. Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately … The BAS or Body Appreciation Scale is another measure of body image. Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS):  Trait This question biases dissatisfaction towards those who have undergone operation, since those not having had surgery necessarily score zero. Possible scores range from 1 to 9, and higher scores indicate more positive body image. Body Image Survey Scoring Instrument (Cont’d) 12. My feet                                                                    1          2          3          4          5, Physical Appearance State and Physical Appearance State and Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS): Trait Version The statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or nervous you feel in general (i.e., usually) about your body or specific parts of your body. The score is achieved by summing the 9 items. each statement and circle the number that best indicates the extent to which Muller KR, Prosser R, Bampton P, et al. The Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS) comprises images of computer generated bodies. Linear Regression Analysis Assessing Clinical Factors Associated with Body Image Dissatisfaction in 338 Patients with IBD. stomach                                                             0          1          2          3          4, 6. Using computer generated bodies improves on the drawn stimuli used in previous figure rating scales (e.g., Stunkard et al., 1983; Thompson & Gray, 1995). Continuous data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Body image has a major influence on social interactions and relationships, and individuals with a negative body image may experience feelings of shame, embarrassment, and anxiety about their physical appearance. We also added a number of questions to Hopwood's original scale during the content validation phase, specifically targeted towards patients with IBD. The Body Esteem Scale by Franzoi and Shields (1984) is a popular scale. In addition, from a research perspective, body image assessments might usefully be employed as secondary endpoints in medical and surgical clinical trials, providing a deeper understanding of the subtle quality of life changes that occur as a result of different interventions. One of the few available instruments for body esteem, the Body Esteem Scale investigates characteristics in young women and young men related to body esteem. Analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0; SPSS, Chicago, Illinois). My hips                                                                   1          2          3          4          5, 5. Body image was evaluated by using the Body Image Scale (BIS) [22], a ten-item scale with four possible responses: 0 (not at all), 1 (a little), 2 (quite a bit), and 3 (very much). With that in mind, Psychology Today decided it was time for another detailed reading of the state of body image. now, I feel anxious, tense, or nervous about: 1. Right Nevertheless, factor analysis confirmed that the scale is a unitary measure of body image disturbance and the questionnaire's internal consistency was excellent. Reliability was confirmed with a test–retest correlation of 0.82 (P < 0.001). Rating scale is recommended for persons age 3 years and older. This scale, one of the scales intended to measure state mindfulness, was created by Tanay and Bernstein in 2013 and has been cited in positive psychological research. Assessing body image in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): validation of the adapted satisfaction with appearance Scale. Percentage of 338 patients with IBD answering each of 9 body image scale questions: “Not at all,” “A little,” “Quite a lot,” and “Very much”. A normal individual's body image is thought to be influenced by many factors including gender, personality type, and cultural and social norms. My Finally, validity needed to be confirmed in a large group of patients with IBD. of your body. The best answer is what you feel is … 1). Body Comparison Scale (BCS) For the items below, use the following scale to rate how often you compare these aspects of your body to those of other individuals of the same sex. We performed known group comparisons (predictive validity) by comparing body image scores in males and females, and in patients who had no previous surgery, nonstoma, or stoma forming surgery with the expectation that both gender and surgery would influence a valid body image scoring system.2,10,16 Thirty-eight patients, whose treatment remained unchanged, completed the body image scale, a median of 11 months (range, 2 wk–18 mo) apart to determine test–retest reliability. Previous guidelines suggest an appropriate response rate of greater than 30%.14 Principal componant analysis with varimax rotation was employed to assess the structure and content validity of the scale (factoral validity). A body image scale for use with cancer patients. Correlations were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Yet the extensive data underpinning these beliefs are incomplete, insofar as no single study has integrated broad biological and psychosocial strands to assess the range of IBD comorbidities and determine their interactions. This can be negatively influenced by a number of factors including disease states and treatments. It was developed primarily for use in research trials, and has previously been found to be a valid and succinct measure of the impact of both disease and treatment on body image.14,15 We found it easy to administer, and patients seemed to find it simple and quick to use with only 3 of 341 patients who returned the questionnaire failing to complete the body image tool adequately. Body esteem (BE) refers to self-evaluations of one's body or appearance. Current Thoughts Scale (Heatherton & Polivy, 1991) – A measure of state self-esteem This is a questionnaire designed to measure what you are thinking at this moment. body (use the following scale). buttocks                                                            1          2          3          4          5, 4. Relationship between body image, gender, and previous surgery in 338 patients with IBD. Response prevalence, i.e., the frequency with which a score of 1 or more was obtained for each question, was determined. It is interesting that this is the only question that relates to patients' interactions with others rather than personal perceptions about body image, and the low positive response rate may relate to the lack of readily noticeable signs of disease or functional changes in most patients. Its 2-week test–retest was found to be 0.82 (Cash & Grasso, 2005). From a clinical point of view, it would be helpful to identify patients with body image alterations who might benefit from simple or more complex psychological interventions. My wrists                                                                0          1          2          3          4, 12. nervous you feel right now about your Convergent validity was established with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (P < 0.001) with the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The emerging role of mood disorders in inflammatory bowel diseases. Although body image issues are clearly important to patients with IBD, study is hampered by the absence of a suitable assessment tool to collect standardized data. Preoperative body-related emotional distress and culture as predictors of outcomes of bariatric surgery. Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately correlated with various trait measures of body image. muscle tone                                                      1          2          3          4          5, 9. My forehead                                                            1          2          3          4          5, 14. stomach                                                             1          2          3          4          5, 6. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing the body image scale with the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire.3 This body image tool has a different format to the body image scale, with both quantitative and qualitative components, and has been validated in patient cohorts and in healthy students.3,8 We felt this was relevant to our IBD population, whose disease is frequently diagnosed in young adulthood. My hips                                                                   0          1          2          3          4, 5. References Franzoi, S.L. After approval of your purchase by charge card or by PayPal on our secure server, you will receive your materials as email attachments within 72 weekday hours. The landmark PT national surveys … However, factor analysis revealed that these additional items formed a separate factor, reduced predictive ability when compared with the original scale and reduced internal reliability. Body image is an important endpoint in quality of life evaluation since cancer treatment may result in major changes to patients' appearance from disfiguring surgery, late effects of radiotherapy or adverse effects of systemic treatment. The In the present investigation with 174 college students, the six-item Body Image States Scale (BISS) was developed and found to be acceptably internally consistent and moderately stable. Dissatisfaction was greater in females and those who had undergone either stoma or nonstoma forming surgery, as previously found by Muller et al11 and others,10,16 establishing predictive validity. My chin                                                                   0          1          2          3          4, 16. Yes No Score 0 1 Scoring: Sum the scores for each question. Convergent validity was established with a correlation coefficient of 0.64. The Portuguese version of the body image scale (BIS)—psychometric properties in a sample of breast cancer patients, Assessment of body image in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer, Enhancing quality of life in medical populations: a vision for body image assessment and rehabilitation as standards of care. The original scale included a question “Have you been dissatisfied with the appearance of your scar?”. Our aim was to assess and validate a body image questionnaire for patients with IBD. Body image may differ between girls of different races and ethnic backgrounds. Resident Physician in Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Copyright © 2021 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation. . Please read METHODS: A 14-item survey using the Body Image States Scale (BISS), with questions related to sex, age, height, weight, and exercise participation, was completed for body image analysis, determining significant differences between students. Body image refers to how we think about, feel and act towards our body. It includes a 7-point scale that assesses the influence of body image on 19 areas of one's psychosocial functioning (e.g., day-to-day emotions, sexuality, self-confidence, grooming habits, etc.) Frequency of body image scale scores in 338 patients with IBD. 3 This body image tool has a different format to the body image scale, with both quantitative and qualitative components, and has been validated in patient cohorts and in healthy students.