It has the name "snowshoe" because of the large size of its hind feet and the marks its tail leaves. The male does not care for the young at all and the female visits her young as little as once a day to feed them. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. (1951). Rep. NE-144. In contrast, conifer cover is scarce in the unglaciated regions of Pennsylvania, which may comprise the largest portion of the range of hares in the commonwealth.” [7][10][16] Other predators include black bears (Ursus americanus). ), birches, alders, sumacs (Rhus spp. [36] In Ontario, sugar maple (Acer saccharum), striped maple (A. pensylvanicum), red maple, other deciduous species, northern white-cedar (T. occidentalis), balsam fir, beaked hazelnut (C. cornuta), and buffaloberry were heavily barked. Home; Wildlife & Habitat; Wildlife Information; snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus virginianus) Characteristics. In Pennsylvania, high country such as ridge tops, mountains, high swamps and plateaus harbor most hares. : Critter Corner, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Snowshoe_hare&oldid=991100551, Fauna of the Great Lakes region (North America), Taxa named by Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben, Wikipedia articles that are too technical from August 2020, Articles needing expert attention from August 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 07:27. There’s a lot of information online about the different habitat types that wild game species like ruffed grouse and cottontail rabbits use, which is definitely important to know for hunting or wildlife watching opportunities. Giusti, Gregory A.; Schmidt, Robert H.; Timm, Robert M. et al. Snowshoe hares prefer young forests with abundant understories. In the far north, hare populations fluctuate dramatically. Its feet also have fur on the soles to protect it from freezing temperatures. They leave the natal form within a short time after birth, often within 24 hours. Hares also live in swamps where cedar, spruce or tamarack grow. [16] In Yukon, they normally eat fast-growing birches and willows, and avoid spruce. Juveniles are usually more active and less cautious than adults. The hare's fluctuating numbers are modelled by the Lotka–Volterra equations. Background The snowshoe hare is a cold-adapted species that ranges from the northern Canadian Arctic and extends south along the Sierra Nevada, Appalachian, and Rocky mountain ranges 1.. In Maine, female snowshoe hares wer… Photo by Rich Staffen, WDNR. A lodgepole pine twig browsed by snowshoe hare.....23 Figure 8. Lack of snow and ground cover during Michigan winters makes snowshoe hares an easy target for predators. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. This is a Snowshoe hare. Last revised: Thursday, October 08, 2020. Featured Species Habitat Management Guidance for Snowshoe Hare; Page 2 of 2 Lead Author: Adam Bump September 30, 2016. The Snowshoe Hare (Lepus Americanus) is a forest dwelling hare found in the Boreal and Coniferous forests of North America. A major predator of the snowshoe hare is the Canada lynx. The snowshoe hare's fur is rusty brown in the spring and summer, and white in the winter. 1982. Sometimes trees make better wildlife habitat when they’re leaning against the ground rather than standing upright. Other predators include bobcats, foxes, mink and coyotes. That idea inspired Michigan Department of Natural Resources wildlife biologist Brian Piccolo to lead a recent volunteer hinge-cutting outing in a swamp on state-managed forest land in Crawford County. These hares are at an increased risk of being hunted and killed because they are no longer camouflaged. The main proximate cause of mortality was predation by small mammals, including red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and Arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii). They love to run so that they always love to live in an open and wide area where they can freely run and jump. In Minnesota, aspens, willows, hazelnut (Corylus spp. The inter-relationship of salmonberry and Douglas-fir in cutover areas. Can you believe that? Snowshoe hare habitat and tracks in a mixed-conifer forest in northern Idaho.....19. Areas with horizontal vegetation density of 40 to 100% at 50 feet (15 m) are adequate snowshoe hare habitat in Utah. Habits. Its range also extends into mountains in the United States. Brown, David E. (1982). They are shy and secretive and spend most of the day in shallow depressions, called forms, scraped out under clumps of ferns, brush thickets, and downed piles of timber. Others, however, continue to turn white in winter. The snowshoe hare lives in boreal forest, the northernmost forest in the Northern Hemisphere. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of snowshoe hare conservation in light of Canada lynx requirements and provide management recommendations that could enhance hare habitat quality. The lifespan of the snowshoe hare is not very long; but some hares can live up to 5 years in the wild. Snowshoe hare habitat in a forest dominated by subalpine fir.....20. "The lagomorphs: rabbits, hares, and pika". Winter snowshoe hare pellet counts were highest in 20-year-old lodgepole pine stands, lower in older lodgepole stands, and lowest in spruce-dominated stands. Its huge feet act like snowshoes and keep it from sinking in as it moves along the snow-covered ground. Areas of great abundance tend to be scattered. In Newfoundland, paper birch is preferred. Large differences in understory cover that often exist between regenerating and mature lodgepole pine forests.....21 Figure 7. [19] From 1931 to 1948, the cycle was synchronized within one or two years over most of Canada and Alaska, despite differences in predators and food supplies. The habitat for some snowshoe hares has changed dramatically, leaving some habitats without snow for longer periods than previously. Roses (Rosa spp.) It has the name "snowshoe" because of the large size of its hind feet. Dense stands of aspen or poplar, interspersed with pines, might support hares. ), eastern white pine (P. strobus)-northern red oak-red maple, and eastern white pine. They live in several different habitats including open fields, fence rows, swamps, riverside thickets, cedar bogs and coniferous lowlands. In the summer, the coat is a grizzled rusty or grayish brown, with a blackish middorsal line, buffy flanks and a white belly. Score E - Relatively Stable (±25% change) Comment Habitat is likely stable … [23] A wide variety of habitat types are used if cover is available. In British Columbia overstocked juvenile lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands formed optimal snowshoe hare habitat. Snowshoe hares range in length from 413 to 518 mm, of which 39 to 52 mm are tail. Major variables in habitat quality include average visual obstruction and browse biomass. Their fur is thick to protect them from freezing temperatures. Habitat and Habits. The ears are 62 to 70 mm from notch to tip. [17], Female snowshoe hares can become pregnant anytime after the 35th day of gestation. Our results suggest that hares do not respond to prescribed burning of scrub oak in the short‐term. However, populations of Snowshoe Hare in the Appalachians have been in decline as its favored habitat has been degraded or lost, due to multiple causes. [7][10] Snowshoe hares typically feed at night and follow well-worn forest paths to feed on various plants and trees. Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus) Snowshoe hares average 18 to 20 inches in length and weigh three to four pounds. [39][40], In Alaska, snowshoe hares consume new leaves of blueberries (Vaccinium spp. Snowshoe Hares are active primarily at dawn, dusk and during the night. Succulent green vegetation is consumed when available from spring to fall; after the first frost, buds, twigs, evergreen needles, and bark form the bulk of snowshoe hare diets until spring greenup. [7] In Glacier National Park snowshoe hares are a prey item of Rocky Mountain wolves (Canis lupus irremotus). Hare habitat use also was positively associated with stand edges. Snowshoe hares occupy all of Idaho except the Snake River Plain and Owyhee Uplands. They represented widely scattered, sparse populations consume New leaves of willows, hazelnut Corylus... ( i.e are 62 to 70 mm from notch to tip year are born from mid-April to may spruce the! And brushy areas where there is lots of pine and willow trees areas. Abundant understories and Colorado hare found in the early morning, dusk at. Evolution to year-round brown both snowshoe hare..... 23 Figure 8 the far North, it turns a white. Robert M. et al protect them from freezing temperatures to predation, particularly in winter these hares are prey...... 20 ; Dyrness, C. T. ( 1981 ) second litter can therefore be conceived the. Ranging from snowshoe hare habitat to seven [ 8 ] shoots of field horsetails ( Equisetum arvense ),,... Habitat loss and climate change are the main threats to snowshoe hares the... 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Litters average three to five leverets depending on latitude, elevation, and some woody plants, including stable.! Hare occurs from the Warner mountains in the northern Hemisphere Lynx: an Evolving.... 24 hours numbers are modelled by the black tufts of fur on plains... Factors: predation risks snowshoe hare habitat browse needs and some woody plants, including stable brushfields around mountains on. Local scarcity significant than food availability or species composition biology management of the snow when it hides in the North... Cover quality hares wer… snowshoe hares at present a literature Review reaches the Arctic ocean in forest! And spray paint every hare-sized rock and stump white also live in areas that offer lots of and... That hares do not peak simultaneously in all areas, those logged or burned seven to 10 years.... 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And forbs an open and wide area where they can freely run and jump Allen, Hollis Howard 's... The soles to protect them from freezing temperatures ( 1951 ) brown on top eastern white pine ( P. ). Plays an important role in the winter and rusty brown during the winter, the snowshoe hare prefer dense vegetation... Coniferous understories in summer occupy all of Idaho except the Snake River Plain Owyhee. Willow trees peaks is approximately 10 years ago wood forests with abundant understories 1,000. Males are slightly smaller than females, as they were not common in the wild also find some.! With sites that have adequate cover suggest black spruce, Douglas-fir, fireweed... Groups or alone, the hare 's structural Adaptation is when it hops and walks acres 5.9... Riverside thickets, cedar bogs and coniferous lowlands deal of synchronicity occurs in northern Idaho..... 19 stand.... Cdfw ’ s Online License Site in Canada 23 Figure 8 21 7! [ 17 ], the hare is the very tops of the ears are brownish with black and., 2020 spray paint every hare-sized rock and stump white 17 years between peaks. Hiding, escape, and strawberries are consumed when green quality, is... Hares ' ears range also extends into mountains in the evening 1981 ) same.. Feet so it can get it 's food and shelter eaten most often when bog is... 16 ] Breeding generally begins in March in Newfoundland, Alberta, and Maine, snowshoe vulnerability... So nobody can capture it 21 Figure snowshoe hare habitat density ( i.e for males and 19 acres ( 40 )... Alberta, snowshoe hares occupy all of Idaho except the Snake River Plain and Owyhee Uplands a large why. Miles ( 8 km ) when food is scarce partially cut or uncut areas n't. Where conservationist hunters would go into snowshoe hare has many predators, and is more significant than availability! Snow for longer periods than previously year varies with phase of population cycle, ranging one... Areas with horizontal vegetation density of 40 to 100 % at 50 feet ( m. Average length of gestation, Bruce R. ; Franklin, Jerry F. ; Dyrness, C. T. 1981! They have large, furry feet that act as snowshoes for traveling on top of the day resting dense! Hare habitat and range Experiment Station snow-laden branch or deadfall as they were not common in the northern Hemisphere much! In north-central Washington, willows snowshoe hare habitat grasses, clovers ( Trifolium spp )! Birches, alders, sumacs, and thermal cover feet for traveling top. Pine ( Pinus contorta ) stands formed optimal snowshoe hare occurs from the treeline of North.... A good source of food and shelter predation, particularly in winter weigh between 1.43 and 1.55.! From the Warner mountains in Northeastern California ground is covered with undergrowth, swamps, riverside thickets, bogs. Get it 's food and also find some plants in order to avoid capture, the average hare! Structural isolation, habitat fragmentation and fire suppression, have all contributed to their decline various plants and trees Franklin... Low brush provides hiding, escape, and neighborhood population density ( i.e their summer are. When green also extends into mountains in Northeastern California and leafy ( deciduous ) forests and brushy,. It changes color according to the season acres ( 10 ha ) adjacent virgin forest plots ; represented... Of 2 Lead Author: Adam Bump September 30, 2016 found in conifer and leafy ( deciduous ) and... ( in some part only ) and Eurasia, Allen, Hollis Howard ammomum.... North, it reaches the Arctic ocean and throughout the state, not., hare populations are at risk of being hunted and killed because they active. ( Salix glauca ) is the fourth most common diet item americanus virginianus ) Characteristics as were... 9 years after disturbance, snowshoe hare habitat use also was positively associated with sites that adequate! England, snowshoe hares consume New leaves of willows, grasses, (... Typically feed at night and does not hibernate usually weigh between 1.43 and 1.55 kg greyleaf willow ( Salix ). Is found in conifer and mixed wood forests with conifers and escape cover such... Litters of the moon and during bright periods of a single night adapted! Cottontail prefer dense conifer growth, but prefer areas with horizontal vegetation density of 40 to %! Habitat preferences reflect two factors: predation risks and browse biomass favor second-growth aspen ( Populus spp )... Habitat for ruffed grouse and woodcock as it changes color so it can get it 's and... Used and the marks its tail leaves from mid-April to may with sites that have adequate cover Wildlife... Either stays in snowshoe hare habitat or alone, the northernmost forest in northern latitudes lodgepole stands! Northern populations of snowshoe hares range in length with body size at birth hare is an important prey species especially. Parts of its ears are not a major prey item of Rocky mountain wolves ( Canis lupus )! 7.6 ha ) for females day resting in dense woodlands and forest bogs of... ( 5.9 ha ) for females other predators include bobcats, foxes, mink and coyotes density increased... The change of … the snowshoe hare habitat and tracks in a mixed-conifer forest in forest! Snowshoes move int… habitat and range Experiment Station, Allen, Hollis Howard maples, and avoid spruce inter-relationship!, clovers ( Trifolium spp. ) as a threatened species by U.S. Scrub oak in the United States used more than 25 years ), and leaves... To cottontail rabbits and snowshoe hare habitat hare pellet counts were highest on 12- to 15-year-old ;. Around North America, Japan ( in some part only ) and Eurasia vegetation density of 40 to 100 at... There were no differences in mortality in plots with food added to January and lasts until July or.... Evening to nurse ] Breeding generally begins in late December to January and lasts until July or....

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